INDUSTRIAL METAL (1988-present)
Industrial Metal is a musical genre that draws from Industrial Dance music, Thrash Metal and Hardcore Punk, using repeating metal guitar riffs, sampling, synthesizer or sequencer lines and distorted vocals. Founding Industrial Metal acts include Ministry, Godflesh and KMFDM.
Industrial Metal developed in the late 1980s, as Industrial and Heavy Metal began to fuse into a common genre. In the early years of the 21st century, groups from the Black Metal scene began to incorporate elements of Industrial music. Industrial Metal did well in the early 1990s, particularly in North America, with the success of groups such as Nine Inch Nails. The Industrial Metal movement began to fade in the latter half of the 1990s.
Though electric guitars had been used by Industrial artists since the early days of the genre, archetypal Industrial groups such as Throbbing Gristle displayed a strong anti-Rock stance. British post-Punk band Killing Joke pioneered the crossing over between styles and was an influence on major Industrial Metal bands such as Ministry, Godflesh and Nine Inch Nails. Another pioneer Industrial Rock group – Big Black, also impacted some later groups.
By the late 1980s Industrial and Heavy Metal began to fuse into a common genre, with Godflesh’s self-titled EP and Ministry’s The Land of Rape and Honey at the forefront. Godflesh was founded by former Napalm Death guitarist Justin Broadrick. Drawing from a wide array of influences — Power Electronics forefathers Whitehouse, Noise Rock band Swans, Ambient music creator Brian Eno and fellow Birmingham Hard Rockers Black Sabbath — the Godflesh sound was once described as “Pornography-era Cure on Quaaludes”. Though not a top-seller, Godflesh nonetheless became an influential act, their name mentioned by Korn, Metallica, Danzig, Faith No More and Fear Factory.
Ministry emerged from the scene surrounding ‘Wax Trax! Records’, a Chicago label dedicated to Industrial music. Ministry’s initial foray into Guitar Rock happened during a recording session of The Land of Rape and Honey on Southern Studios, in London. The band’s frontman, the Cuban-born Al Jourgensen seemed particularly fond of Thrash Metal. After the release of ‘The Land of Rape and Honey’, he recruited guitarist Mike Scaccia from Texas thrashers Rigor Mortis. On one occasion, Jourgensen told the press that Sepultura was his favorite band. He also expressed the desire to produce a Metallica album. Jourgensen’s interest in dance-oriented Electronic music did not entirely fade, however; he also formed the side-project Revolting Cocks, a more Electronic body music.
German band KMFDM was another seminal Industrial Metal group. Although not a metal fan, KMFDM leader Sascha Konietzko’s “infatuation with ripping off metal licks” stemmed from his experiments with E-mu’s Emax sampler in late 1986. A Swiss trio, The Young Gods, brushed with the style on their second album, L’Eau Rouge (1989).
Pigface, formed by Martin Atkins and including Ministry drummer Bill Rieflin, emerged as an Industrial Metal collective of sorts, participating with many figures from the Noise Rock and Industrial worlds. Nine Inch Nails, the “one-man-band” formed by Trent Reznor, brought the genre to mainstream audiences with albums such as the Grammy-winning ‘Broken’ and the best-selling ‘The Downward Spiral’, accompanied by their groundbreaking performance at Woodstock ’94. The rivethead sub-culture also developed at this time, along with the so-called “coldwave” sub-genre, which encompassed Chemlab, 16 Volt and Acumen Nation. Some Electro-Industrial groups adopted Industrial Metal techniques in this period, including Skinny Puppy and Front Line Assembly. British band Pitchshifter, formed in 1989 by brothers Jon and Mark Clayden, also started as an Industrial Metal band. The band later included elements of drum and bass.
Industrial Thrash and Death Metal
Industrial Metal’s popularity led a number of successful Thrash Metal groups, including Megadeth, Sepultura and Anthrax, to request remixes by “Industrial” artists. Some musicians emerging from the Death Metal scene, such as Fear Factory, Nailbomb and Meathook Seed, also began to experiment with Industrial. Fear Factory, from Los Angeles, were initially influenced by the Earache roster (namely Godflesh, Napalm Death and Bolt Thrower). The German band Oomph! after their debut album Sperm started to play Industrial Metal combined with elements of Death Metal and Groove Metal until the album Plastik.
Sepultura singer Max Cavalera’s Nailbomb, a collaboration with Alex Newport, also practiced a combination of Extreme Metal and Industrial production techniques. A lesser-known example of Industrial Death Metal is Meathook Seed, made up of members of Napalm Death and the Florida Death Metal group Obituary. An Industrial music fan, Obituary guitarist Trevor Peres suggested drum machines for ‘The End Complete’, Obituary’s most successful album. The other band members’ refusal led him to form Meathook Seed.
Industrial Black Metal
In the early years of the 21st century, groups from the Black Metal scene began to incorporate elements of Industrial music. Mysticum, formed in 1991, was the first of these groups. DHG (Dødheimsgard), Thorns from Norway and Blut Aus Nord, a French Black Metal group, have been acclaimed for their incorporation of Industrial elements. Other Industrial Black Metal musicians include Samael, The Axis of Perdition, Aborym and …And Oceans. In addition, The Kovenant, Mortiis and Ulver emerged from the Norwegian Black Metal scene, but later chose to experiment with Industrial music.
Industrial Metal blossomed in the early 1990s, particularly in North America, where it would eventually sell close to 35 million units. It first became a commercial force in 1992 when Nine Inch Nails’ Broken and Ministry’s Psalm 69 went platinum in America, though the latter took three years to reach that status. Both groups were nominated for the Best Metal Performance in the 1992 Grammy Awards, with Nine Inch Nails winning. Two years later, Nine Inch Nails released The Downward Spiral, which debuted at No. 2 and would eventually go quadruple-platinum. This record is considered by Allmusic as “one of the bleakest multi-platinum albums ever.”
Following Nine Inch Nails’ success, Marilyn Manson, led by a protégé of Reznor’s, came to prominence. The group’s live performance and its transgressive appeal was often more commented on than their music.
Industrial Metal reached its commercial zenith in the latter half of the 1990s – according to the RIAA databases, its top-selling artists sold around 17.5 million units combined. Records by major Industrial Metal artists routinely debuted on the top spots of the Billboard 200 chart: Fear Factory’s Obsolete (No. 1), Rob Zombie’s Hellbilly Deluxe (No. 5), Marilyn Manson’s Antichrist Superstar (No. 3) and Nine Inch Nails’ The Fragile (No. 1).
A number of Industrial Metal albums performed well on Billboard’s Heatseekers chart : Filter’s Short Bus (No. 3), Stabbing Westward’s Wither Blister Burn + Peel (No. 1), Rammstein’s Sehnsucht (No. 2), Orgy’s Candyass (No. 1) and Static-X’s Wisconsin Death Trip (No. 1). Around that time Trent Reznor, the movement’s most well-known person, was chosen by Time as one of the most influential Americans of 1997. Its popularity was such that established Glam Metal groups, including Guns N’ Roses and Mötley Crüe, began to dabble in the style. Figures from the Hip Hop scene also began to seek out collaborations with and remixes from Industrial Metal musicians.
When Industrial Metal climbed the charts of the late 1990s, its sudden popularity was met with negative reactions from the early innovators of industrial music. Peter Christopherson told The Wire that he no longer felt any kinship with the industrial scene: “this is not me, this is not what I’m about”. Lustmord, a prominent early industrial musician, declared that “Ministry just doesn’t interest [him]” and “[he has] no time for all this rock and roll shit they’re doing now”. Skinny Puppy frontman Nivek Ogre dismissed Nine Inch Nails as “cock rock”, but have since patched things up and have even performed on stage together.
Industrial Metal suffered a critical backlash at the turn of the millennium. In an April 2000 review for the Chicago Sun Times, Jim DeRogatis dismissed Nine Inch Nails’ new music as a “generic brand of Industrial thrash” and accused Ministry of repeating an act that “was old by 1992”. Although The Fragile reached the top spot of the Billboard 200 and went on to earn double platinum status, DeRogatis considered it a “flop” nonetheless. Around this time, veteran Industrial Metal artists (Ministry, Godflesh and White Zombie) began to repudiate the Industrial label. Sales remained high throughout 2000–2005; at least 10 million records were sold during that time frame. Many groups began to take influence from Hip Hop and Electronic music, in addition to Industrial Metal. As a result, acts like Powerman 5000 are often described as Industrial Metal as well as Nu Metal.
Film and Video
Several Industrial Metal groups have produced eye-catching videos. These includes Godflesh’s collaboration with Andres Serrano, Aidan Hughes’s graphics for KMFDM, Nine Inch Nails’ work with Mark Romanek, Rob Zombie’s visual work for White Zombie (for which he received the MTV Video Music Award for Best Hard Rock Video) and Marilyn Manson’s output with Richard Kern and Floria Sigismondi. NIN later collaborated with Bill Viola for live accompaniment. Trent Reznor also produced the soundtracks for the films ‘Natural Born Killers’ and ‘Lost Highway’, and served as “musical consultant” for ‘Man on Fire’. Rob Zombie has directed three films. As of 2009, Marilyn Manson directed ‘Phantasmagoria : The Visions of Lewis Carroll’. Other films that have included prominent contributions from Industrial Metal artists include The Crow, Johnny Mnemonic, Spawn, The Matrix and A.I. Artificial Intelligence.